• Define the task
  • Consider your audience
  • Decide what to include
  • Collect the data/information
  • Sort and assess the information gathered
  • Organise the information
  • Prepare an outline of how to present the information
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Summary and Recommendations
  • Introduction
  • Methodology
  • Body of the Report
  • Conclusions / Recommendations
  • Attachments / Appendices
  • Bibliography



Everything you COULD put it but you should be selective depending on the size of your report and your teacher's instructions. The ones in red are critical elements and must be in your report

  • The Title Page - this page includes the report's full title, the name or organisation which authorised the preparation of the report (eg Senior Geography Project), the date of submission and to whom the report is to be submitted.
  • The Table of Contents - this page includes the titles of the main sections and the subsections of the report and must be an accurate summary of the contents. Always check that the numbering system used is logical and easy to follow. When numbering pages make sure that all pages are numbered. The convention is that the pages before the Summary and Recommendations are numbered in Roman form e.g. i, ii, iii, iv. The numbers of the content itself are numbered in Arabic style e.g. 1, 2, 3.
  • List of Tables - if a List of Tables is supplied it goes immediately after the Table of Contents.
  • Summary and Recommendations - this section gives a brief outline of less than a page on the report's scope, purpose, methods, findings and conclusions.
  • The Introduction - this section defines the research task and problem. It includes the authorisation, the problem, the purpose and the scope of the report. It includes definitions of terms, the sources used, the background of the report and any limitations.
  • Methodology - this section explains how the report was prepared, the research on which it is based and the particular approach used.
  • The Body of the Report - this section investigates and analyses the findings, and identifies and develops solutions about the task. It must use a system of numbering which makes understanding the report as easy as possible. Include parts such as 6.1 Graphics 6.1.1 Explain the idea in writing 6.1.2 Discuss how the graph relates to the information presented 6.1.3 Place the graph or diagram straight after this information Clearly label all inclusions whether pictures, graphs, tables. Include Title, date (if applicable), source (if applicable). Also label the parts of each graphic such as the axes in graphs and the headings in tables.
  • The Conclusion - this section is a summary of the report's findings and assesses the main arguments presented in the report. It may or may not include recommendations depending on the purpose of the report. Recommendations - these aim to solve the problem presented or, at least, to provide answers to questions asked in the report's terms of reference. They must always be based on the research findings of the report.
  • Attachment and Appendices - these include relevant material which, if included in the body of the report, would interfere in the flow of the report. Usually technical information is put here, detailed statistics, a copy of each questionnaire used, maps, extracts from journals and newspapers.
  • A Bibliography - a list of the books, journals, reports, internet sites and other sources which you have consulted in the preparation of this report.
  • Foot and Endnoting - a way of referencing any material quoted in the Report from whatever source used.

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